Onset and Duration
Dosage and Administration
Epinephrine stimulates alpha-, beta1-, and beta2-adrenergic receptors in dose-related fashion. It is the initial drug of choice for treating bronchoconstriction and hypotension resulting from anaphylaxis as well as all forms of cardiac arrest. It is useful in managing reactive airway disease, but beta-adrenergic agents are often used initially because of their convenience and oral inhalation route. Rapid injection produces a rapid increase in systolic pressure, ventricular contractility, and heart rate. In addition, epinephrine causes vasoconstriction in the arterioles of the skin, mucosa, and splanchnic areas and antagonizes the effects of histamine.
Acute allergic reaction
Ventricular fibrillation unresponsive to initial defibrillatory attempts
Precipitation of angina pectoris
MAOIs and bretylium may potentiate the effect of epinephrine.
Beta-adrenergic antagonists may blunt inotropic response.
Sympathomimetics and phosphodiesterase inhibitors may exacerbate dysrhythmia response.
May be deactivated by alkaline solutions (sodium bicarbonate, Furosemide).
1 mg/ml ( 1: 1000), 0.1 mg/ml (1:10,000) ampule and prefilled syringe
Autoin jector (EpiPen) 0.5 mg/ml (1:2000)
0.01 mg/ml ( 1: 100,000) pediatric
Pregnancy safety: Category C.
Syncope has occurred after epinephrine administration to asthmatic children.
May increase myocardial oxygen demand.